Learning Disability Intervention in MD

Migdal Consulting is an educational consultant in Frederick, MD specializing in dyslexia, learning disability intervention, and special education tutoring.

Specific Learning Disability: Under section 30 of the US 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), a Specific Learning Disability is:

(A) In general.–The term `specific learning disability’ means a disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.

(B) Disorders included.–Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

(C) Disorders not included.–Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

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Myths about Dyslexia

Dyslexia: According to the International Dyslexia Association, dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.

Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

Problems experienced by students with dyslexia include:

• Phonological processing
• Alphabetic principles
• Decoding
• Articulation
• Written expression
• Spelling


Dysgraphia: A neurologically based specific learning disability, dysgraphia can present as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting, and trouble putting thoughts on paper. It can be a
language based and/or non-language based disorder. When it is language based, a student may have difficultly converting the sounds of language into written form, or knowing which alternate spelling to use for each sound. When it is non-language based, a student may have difficulty performing the controlled fine motor skills required to write. Students with dysgraphia may speak more easily and fluently than they write.

Problems experienced by students with dysgraphia include:

•Difficulty spelling
• Poor handwriting
• Trouble putting thoughts on paper
• Poor organization of writing on the page
• Body awareness or feedback in the hands
• Poor endurance for handwriting



Dyscalculia: A neurologically based specific learning disability, dyscalculia is characterized by
unusual difficulty solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts. The most common
problem is with “number sense.” This is an intuitive understanding of how numbers work and
how to compare and estimate quantities. Students may know what to do in math class, but not
understand why they are doing it because the logic behind the calculation is missing.

Problems experienced by students with dyscalculia include:

  • Recalling basic math facts
  • Time management
  • Poor sense of directionUnderstanding information on graphs or charts
  • Understanding words related to math, such as greater than or less than
  • Identifying mathematic symbols
  • Making change

Contact Migdal Consulting for Professional Learning Disability Intervention

I have a unique understanding because as a Mom of three diverse learners, I have felt the same way. I have also felt frustrated as an educator before I learned about the science of reading. Check out our resources and definitions to help understand some of the terms mentioned throughout our website.

We support students, parents and educators in Frederick MD and surrounding areas in VA, PA, and WV, as well as nationwide virtually. Contact us to start a conversation and learn about our learning disability intervention in MD.